TTS and Usability

There are limited yet very legit use-cases for Text to Speech engines in your application.

An example for such a case is an application that has focus and is doing its thing, but doesn’t require physical interaction with the device. These applications might still want to update the user regularly, without touching or looking at the device. An example of such an application is a Navigation-app or my own BikeTrack.

Making Android talk

Android exposes it’s Text to Speech abilities via the TextToSpeech-class since API Level 4 (Android 1.6), so it should be available on all devices.

TextToSpeech tts = new TextToSpeech(context, new TextToSpeech.OnInitListener() {
    public void onInit(int status) {
        if (status == TextToSpeech.SUCCESS){
            // Start talking...
        } else if (status == TextToSpeech.ERROR) {
            // Couldn't initialize TTS service

This example is straightforward enough, except for the OnInitListener-part: Starting the TTS service and connecting to it might take some time. Therefore, we need some sort of callback to tell us when initialization is done.

What that means for our code is, that the following won’t work:

TextToSpeech tts = new TextToSpeech(context, new TextToSpeech.OnInitListener() {...});
int result = tts.speak("Testing", ...);

If speak() is called directly after the constructor returns, the service might not be started, so we’re not able to speak yet.

Silence before initialization

If we consult the Android Documentation on the speak()-method, it tells us that:

[…] This method is asynchronous, i.e. the method just adds the request to the queue of TTS requests and then returns. The synthesis might not have finished (or even started!) at the time when this method returns.

Returns: ERROR or SUCCESS of queuing the speak operation.

So we told the TTS service to queue this speak operation, but if the service is not yet initialized, it won’t do so! If we check the return value, we’ll see that queueing failed.

So, adding speak-operations to the TTS before it’s done won’t actually just wait until it’s initialized and then process them, they’ll be discarded instead.

Initialization might fail

The biggest problem with Androids Documentation on Text to Speech is, that it’s not really clear under which circumstances initialization will fail, or what will happen if we try to use it, even if initialization failed.

By looking at the code, I could gather the following:

  • Older versions (API Levels 4 (Android 1.6) to 9 (Android 2.3.2)) don’t ever return FAILED. They simply don’t handle the failure.
  • On newer versions (since API Level 14 (Android 4.0.1)) it’s a little more complicated:
    1. First, try the supplied engine (supplying an engine to use is optional)…
    2. then, try the default engine (returned by getDefaultEngine()) as a fallback (This can be deactivated since API Level 16 (Android 4.1.1))…
    3. lastly, try the engine with the “highest ranking”, which will currently just fall back to the first engine, if it shipped with the system.

In general: When bindService() returned false (that is, if we couldn’t bind to the engine service) for all considered engines, a device with API Level 10 (Android 2.3.3) or higher will give you an ERROR-status.

That said, no implementation of TextToSpeech will throw exceptions or errors if you call speak() or synthesizeToFile() on them, when they’re not completely initialized or failed to initialize. They’ll fail gracefully and Log the error to LogCat.

Talk to me

When the Service is successfully (and completely) initialized, meaning the OnInitListener.onInit(status)-method has been called with SUCCESS as the status, the service is ready and can be used.

Making the engine speak is pretty straight forward, so reading either the documentation on speak(String, int, HashMap) or synthesizeToFile(String, int, HashMap) will get you there.

Instead, let us talk about when to speak and when to just shut up.

Silence is golden. Sometimes

“Don’t annoy the user” is a good principal in general, but with Text to Speech it’s even more important. Here are a few general rules:

  • Allow users to deactivate TTS completely.
  • If you find yourself adding a lot of spoken updates to your application, try grouping all of them into levels of verbosity and let the user choose a level.
  • Be adaptive with the current playback
  • Keep spoken messages short

As a general advice, take into consideration that you can not just quickly skim a spoken update or just stop reading once you have the relevant information, like you can with text. Also, you can’t highlight things when speaking (at least not as clearly as with text), so keep the messages short and to the point.

Talking, the adaptive way

By default, when you call the speak()-method, the text will be spoken on the same stream that most applications use for playback (for example games or the music player). Therefore, if the user is playing music on his device, TTS will just “talk over it”, making it hard to understand the spoken text.

In his excellent presentation “Android Protips” from Google I/O 2011, Reto Meier talks about making applications “adaptive” (the part relevant to TTS starts at around 45:00): By requesting audio focus for a short time (in which we’ll speak via TTS), we can pause everything that’s on the stream or lower the streams volume (called “ducking”), so that the user can hear what’s being said.

Here is a short example that asks the apps currently using the music stream to duck for a short while, so we can talk to the user:

// -- Setup (just need to do this once) --
// Get access to the AudioManager:
AudioManager am = (AudioManager) context.getSystemService(Context.AUDIO_SERVICE);
AudioManager.OnAudioFocusChangeListener afl = new AudioManager.OnAudioFocusChangeListener() {
    public void onAudioFocusChange(int focusChange) {
        // Specify how YOUR app will handle audio-focus loss (optional)
// We need to abandon the audio-focus as soon as we're done talking:
tts.setOnUtteranceCompletedListener(new TextToSpeech.OnUtteranceCompletedListener() {
    public void onUtteranceCompleted(String s) {

// ...

// Ask others to lower their volume for a short time, while we're talking:
int focus_res = am.requestAudioFocus(
// Talk:
if (focus_res == AudioManager.AUDIOFOCUS_REQUEST_GRANTED){
    tts.speak(text, TextToSpeech.QUEUE_ADD, this.tts_params);

Now, when we want to talk to the user, no other (if any) currently playing applications should interfere. Depending on how important our message is, we can change the way we want the AudioManager to behave:

  • Use AUDIOFOCUS_GAIN if we request focus (will pause other applications) for an unspecific period of time (but not short).
  • Use AUDIOFOCUS_GAIN_TRANSIENT to pause other applications for a short period of time, or
  • use AUDIOFOCUS_GAIN_TRANSIENT_MAY_DUCK if it’s something short and other applications may lower their volume for that period (this might indicate, that this message is not critically important).

NOTE: By requesting the audio focus we ask other applications to pause/lower their volume, they have no obligations to do so. For example, requesting transient focus with ducking might work as expected for one media player (e.g. “Google Play Music”) but differently for another (the HTC standard music player just pauses for the time).

We can set this behavior for our own application by reacting to audio-focus changes in the OnAudioFocusChangeListener (as shown in the presentation).

A decent, but not complete example of a wrapper that handles all these things can be found here.

Cleaning up

It’s important to call shutdown() on the TextToSpeech object, once you’re done with it!

Releases the resources used by the TextToSpeech engine. It is good practice for instance to call this method in the onDestroy() method of an Activity so the TextToSpeech engine can be cleanly stopped.

If you fail to do so, the application will leak resources and a ServiceConnectionLeaked error will appear in the LogCat.


  • You’ll need to wait for the call to onInit() with a status of SUCCESS, until you can start talking
  • It’s easy to annoy users with TTS. Give them options to reduce the verbosity or to deactivate it completely and keep spoken messages short and to the point
  • Make your application adaptive by requesting audio-focus before talking
  • Remember to shut down the TTS service, once you’re done